In effect since December 29, 1993, The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is the only existing global agreement for preserving and improving marine and terrestrial biodiversity.
The main objectives of the CBD are to promote the conservation of biological diversity, ensure the sustainable use of the components of biological diversity, and to promote the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits resulting from the utilization of genetic resources.
With the exception of the United States, Andorra, and the Holy See, every member state of the United Nations has signed the CBD (known as ‘Parties to the Convention’).
CBD Parties (193 total) are encouraged to implement comprehensive ocean health policies, establish integrated coastal zone management programs, protect spawning and nursing areas, reduce the introduction of invasive species, create educational programs and research initiatives, enact improvements in waste treatment, and enforce controls on destructive fishing practices.
How Was It Measured?
The country responses to surveys included in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report (2005) were applied in varying combinations for five separate Resilience measures for different goals and sub-goals; the response layers used were alien species, habitat, mariculture, tourism, and water. Each question was weighted equally within each category and responses were averaged to give a score between 0-1 for all respondents. For each question score, a 1 was assigned if a country was a signatory and responded “yes”, or a 0 if a country was a signatory and answered either “no” or had no response.
153 members of the 193 members of the CBD responded to the Third National Survey (2005). All contributing countries were given 0.5 credit within each of the Resilience measures for being a member of the CBD, the other 0.5 of the Resilience score came from each country’s responses to specific questions within each Resilience measure. In cases where the European Union answered “yes” or was a signatory, all EU25 countries were given that response if none was provided on an individual basis. Data was provided for 147 regions, and used geographical means, weighted by country area, for the remaining regions.